Evidence from road construction in India shows that there are clear political gains from investing in large scale public infrastructure projects. The price of a vote however is substantial and may be overshadowed by more cost-effective short-term vote buying policies.
The creation of smaller local government polities resulted in greater public good access across multiple dimensions – village-level infrastructure, individually-targeted benefit programmes, and workfare programmes – over both the short and long run.
It is only democracies that perform well on the dimensions that the public cares about – economic growth, control of corruption, peace and political stability and public good provision – that build support for democratic institutions
Climate change is increasing rainfall uncertainty, which has gendered impacts on rural labour markets. After droughts, women are less likely to access non-farm employment through migration than men, exacerbating existing occupational gender gaps